My Title is Hanu; Fejiro Hanu Agbodje. I’m the Founder and CEO of Patricia. Patricia began as an trade for present playing cards and has swiftly metamorphosed right into a crypto trade that has grown to develop into one in every of Africa’s main crypto and infrastructure suppliers.

We at Patricia consider {that a} crucial utility of Blockchain lies in its skill to unravel inherent, Africa-specific issues to democratize the monetary panorama. As an organization, we’ve got tackled a few of these issues for 900,000 Customers and Merchants. In doing so, we’ve got contributed to monetary inclusivity, job creation, the event of a talent-based economic system, and the creation of recent wealth amongst younger Africans.

Being totally different makes you stand out, and taking the trail much less travelled is essential to greatness and influence, a trait the standard African youth possesses. I write this memo, ‘The state of Blockchain in Africa, that I would pay ahead a number of the information I’ve garnered with different good, disruptive, “typical” younger Africans, who additionally would possibly wish to do essentially the most.

African issues, significantly issues in African finance, require ingenious options for actual change. In most situations, change within the ecosystem typically requires massive levels of disruption; the extra disruptive you’re, the extra reward there seems to be. For substantial development to be made on the continent, we should drive progressive and disruptive options that enable for leap-frogging and transformation. It’s this transformative energy that blockchain expertise possesses. We’ve seen some stage of this disruption within the jap African finance ecosystem with notable successes round MPESA (cell cash).

Other than transparency and accountability, the Blockchain can present excessive ranges of economic inclusion and accessibility that’s not presently obtainable on the continent and might be utilized in different methods. In just a few weeks, I’ll flip 27 years outdated. Over the previous 27 years, most African nations have suffered from excessive inflation charges, corruption, poverty, useful resource misappropriation, unemployment, and plenty of extra afflictions that rob residents of wealth and buying energy. Presently, the Sustainable Improvement Objectives for 2030 targets appear unrealizable as a result of fixed depletion of infrastructure and human improvement on the continent.

Tremendous excessive inflation charges throughout Africa have traditionally been a lot larger than the worldwide common. Excessive examples akin to Zimbabwe’s hyperinflation. Presently, the Nigerian Naira is taking a beating, mirroring the consequences of inflation. So many African international locations undergo from depreciating and unstable nationwide currencies; currencies such because the Nigerian naira (NGN), Egyptian pound (EGP), Algerian dinar (DZD), Ethiopian birr (ETB), and Ghanaian cedi (GHS) have seen comparable conditions. Bitcoin and different cryptocurrencies with restricted provides, disinflationary financial fashions, and decentralized governance supply safety in opposition to such downturns.

Blockchain is so distinctive that it combines the wealth preservation properties of onerous property, akin to gold and land, with the portability of a digital forex. Take all of that and mash it up with the doggedness, robust will, and tenacity of Africans; you get the beginning of the African Monetary Revolution. If there may be an innovation that may save and unite Africa, I predict it’s Blockchain expertise.

If I have been to explain the whole Blockchain area in Africa, I might describe the area as YOUNG and DISRUPTIVE.

What’s Web3

Web3: Internet 3, merely put, is the third era of the evolution of internet applied sciences, just like how we’ve got new iPhone fashions yearly. Web3 is the latest model of the web.

Earlier than we delve into internet 3, we’ve got to the touch base on its predecessor, Web1 and web2.

Web1: That is the earliest model of the web; it’s read-only for the online; it principally supplied customers the power to learn and analysis, with hardly any option to work together with what they have been studying. Consider it like studying a printed journal; you possibly can solely learn it.

Web2: This defines the present state of the web, The place customers can learn and likewise write. The crucial distinction is writing. Right here you possibly can work together with the web, user-generated content material (importing a video on youtube), Making an order on-line(Buying from Jumia). Internet 2 supplies customers to create content material versus simply viewing it.

Web3: Learn, Write and Personal. Possession is likely one of the key differentiators between the web2 and the web3, the place customers would have possession over Private Knowledge, cash, and digital property. On this world, NFTs will give true possession of digital property on-line; wallets will change financial institution accounts. In a nutshell, decentralization begins right here.

The State of Crypto: Analyzing the panorama.

Peer-to-Peer: Africa accounts for a a lot bigger share of the P2P buying and selling market globally. In 2021, we noticed an enormous spike in P2P when the Nigerian Authorities banned Crypto in Nigeria and despatched us all a love letter on the fifth of February 2021. P2P had blown up since then and has not locked again. Casual P2P buying and selling is big in Nigeria. Trades on WhatsApp and Telegram are the order of the day. I’ve seen younger individuals and Enterprise homeowners in these teams perform transactions for a number of thousands and thousands of {dollars} inside their small circles. As of April 2022, cryptocurrency trade Kucoin reported that 33.4 million Nigerians commerce or personal crypto property regardless of restrictions on cryptocurrency transactions by the CBN, utilizing peer-to-peer networks. Whereas Binance is the undisputed chief in P2P in Africa, Paxful, Localbitcoins and Remitano are doing fairly nicely on this area. Whoever considered the escrow system, we owe you one.

Political Instability: The instability of nationwide politics and unstable authorities methods has additionally been a problem confronting the development of the continent. Political instability immediately impacts inflation and forex volatility and has much more important results, akin to compelled migration, GDP collapse, and wealth confiscation. Wealth confiscation has been significantly thriving in African Nations. Blockchain may help mitigate or scale back the extent of those challenges by providing transparency in authorities processes via the open system it presents. We will have transparency in voting processes, validation of information and authorities knowledge, and accountability again within the system. This may improve the boldness of the residents and foster peace and improvement.

Unbanked Residents: Other than financial and political instability, conventional monetary providers underserved most of Africa, having a excessive variety of unbanked indigenes. The variety of business banks per 100,000 adults is 61% decrease throughout Sub-Saharan Africa than the worldwide common. As of 2018, 66% of these dwelling in Sub-Saharan Africa haven’t any entry to a conventional checking account. Though, I don’t consider Blockchain would Financial institution the unbanked instantly, as I consider that might be a few years of transition from banking the girl who sells groceries within the Kazi (South African time period for nook retailer).

Nonetheless, if any expertise stands an opportunity, a handshake between Blockchain and conventional finance stands an opportunity. As a crucial innovation, crypto wallets can function protected storage for property and are safer and accessible than a conventional checking account to re-bank the banked.

Remittances and cross-border funds: The price of cross-border fee and the dearth of infrastructure to facilitate it’s each a monetary fear and an financial downside. Presently, remittances beneath $200 to Sub-Saharan international locations value a median of about 9% in comparison with the worldwide common of 6.8%, whereas funds between international locations are much more costly. For instance, in keeping with the World Financial institution, sending cash from South Africa to Zambia prices 18%.

These overburdensome prices are attributable to a mixture of inefficient insurance policies from the central banks, an uncompetitive banking market, and a reliance on legacy monetary communications methods akin to SWIFT. Cryptocurrencies are a doable answer to those issues, particularly the options that prioritize decrease payment funds, one of many explanation why the Tron Blockchain is used primarily in Africa. Whatever the excessive prices, remittances are massively essential in Africa and key to state income. In contrast to different areas, most African international locations have leapfrogged conventional finance completely, going straight to cell banking and now Neo-banking. This pattern can also be ideally suited to cryptocurrency adoption, which is suited to cell units. Cellular fee is already important. But cross-border fee continues to be an enormous ache level; for just a few, Cryptocurrencies are the reply, and stablecoins are the selection tokens.

Secure Cash: Stablecoins are cryptocurrency stabilizers and, positively Africa’s favorite tokens, are Liked by Crypto bros and Crypto merchants. From hedging in opposition to Ravaging inflation charges, Cross border funds stablecoins are the kind of crypto asset that goals to supply stability for customers. Tether was the primary Stablecoin, launched in 2014, and it stays the mannequin for people who have adopted it. Tether stays the preferred kind of Stablecoin, with Tron being the preferred Blockchain for Stablecoins.

From the Chinese language neighborhood utilizing Stablecoins for Arbitrage, The International Change Merchants utilizing Stablecoins as an alternate supply for US greenback, and Africans who wrestle to ship or obtain cash throughout nationwide borders; Stablecoin has had an infinite influence on the African area.

Mining: Mining exercise in Africa is sort of non-existent; I don’t see that growing, particularly now that almost all Crypto protocols are shifting away from Proof of labor protocol which immediately impacts electrical energy utilization, the local weather, and excessive gasoline charges have gotten extra of a difficulty than ever earlier than. Now we see the Proof of state slowly changing into essentially the most most well-liked protocol, as we see with the Ethereum blockchain efficiently migrating over.

Funding: The Blockchain business in Africa will not be slowing down; mega crypto offers rock the continent. Metaverse Magna (MVM), a blockchain gaming platform, has raised a $3.2 million seed sale token spherical, and Mara, a pan-African crypto trade platform, raised $23 million. In distinction, Jambo, a Congo-based startup, raised $30 million; most not too long ago, Yellow Card raised $40 million. Regardless of the continued funding within the crypto ecosystem in Africa, the continent accounted for simply 0.5% of whole world blockchain funding, providing a lot extra upside to potential traders.

Though Africa’s blockchain and cryptocurrency funding numbers are nonetheless small in comparison with different areas, they’re doing essentially the most and aren’t slowing down.

NFTS: Non-fungible tokens, aka NFTs, are digital currencies that may be traded and transferred identical to the actual forex. They’re purchased, offered, and transferred from one individual to the opposite, and possession of these things, akin to artwork, music, and actual property might be transferred securely and recorded on the Blockchain.

The Degen craze was not as lively in Africa as in different components of the world. Nonetheless, we did have our justifiable share of celebrities leaping on the craze; Nigeria’s foremost Music government Don Jazzy jumped on the Bored app and was an evangelist for NFTs.

A couple of notable collections have come out of Africa, with Owo Anietie — a Nigerian digital Afrofuturism artist rising to fame along with his work Afrodriods. Afrodroids had 12,117 digital collectables that received offered out rapidly to 3500+ holders. What’s most attention-grabbing about this undertaking is that 20% of all earnings went to charity, and he constructed a free artwork and dance academy in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria. Discuss Affect.

Sadly, The Market has since plummeted alongside the cryptocurrency market capitalization, following the worldwide pattern. Based on knowledge from Dune Analytics, NFTs and collectables recorded on blockchains — have tumbled 97% from a document excessive in January this 12 months.

Open Sea stays the preferred spot to commerce NFTs in Africa.

Authorities Exploration of Cryptocurrencies: Lately, the Authorities has made efforts to know the cryptocurrency and, predominantly, the blockchain sector to develop tasks which are a part of the digital economic system. Nonetheless, these efforts haven’t yielded desired outcomes but; as a result of the Authorities, as an alternative of supporting current frameworks, has determined to go on a sole voyage and has not been sensible in method.

As an illustration, CBDCs was constructed to the specs and concepts of the Authorities and to not go well with their customers’ use case and ache factors. In a nutshell, it doesn’t give worth to its customers, so it’s not counter-productive. The launch of the E-Naira raised hopes and anticipation of a digital forex for all, however attributable to mismanagement and no sensible roadmap, the adoption and use of the E-Naira are non-existent. Lately, I noticed the Nigerian Authorities through the Central financial institution internet hosting a hackathon themed “Obtained what it takes to maneuver the eNaira ahead.” Whereas that could be a sound initiative, It might have been averted altogether; actual sustainability can solely happen if there’s a handshake between the personal sector and the federal government half starters

The Authorities should perceive that they can not shut down the secure door after the horse has bolted. Blockchain is the long run, and any effort to ban them and even excessively intervene in its operations; could be futile. Furthermore, limiting cryptocurrencies in the intervening time, when they’re facilitating improvements and brimming with potential, would undermine the financing of crucial sectors. Blockchain will play a crucial function if Africa meets its Sustainable Improvement Objectives by 2023.

Whereas decentralized finance and blockchain expertise is scalable and operationalized in different international locations and areas, African policymakers have struggled to reconcile cryptocurrencies with their current financial system. Many international locations in Africa have ignored this monetary innovation, and a few even went so far as criminalizing it.

Competitors: The longer term is shifting in a short time within the blockchain neighborhood in Africa. Domestically owned exchanges like Patricia, Buycoins, Quidax, and Tradfada are rising quick. Internationally owned exchanges Yellowcard, Binance, and Paxful, have a stable presence within the area. Blockchain applied sciences are proving to be efficient for a large number of makes use of. Therefore competitors is getting so much stiffer. The Battle for supremacy within the African market is for the deep-pocketed and, concurrently, for the courageous. The worldwide neighborhood flooding into Africa doesn’t make it a extra accessible panorama for native gamers to compete in.

Nonetheless, this dexterity of the native gamers within the area exhibit could tip the curve. Patricia, Quidax, and Tradefada are examples of regionally owned exchanges redefining the face of Crypto in Africa. The race will get more durable; rumours of 9-digit offers linked to the International Crypto trade flocks round city. I consider as adoption will get deeper, so will competitors too.

My Imaginative and prescient

I’ve a dream * In Martin Luther King’s voice*.

I’ve a dream the place Africa turns into the HQ for Blockchain globally, the place we OWN and dominate the business, and we rule with no concern. I consider that is doable as a result of we’re already doing so with little or no infrastructure and authorities regulation. Nigeria is the fourth nation with essentially the most use for crypto at this time, with 22million customers.

Africans can do that, however first, we should select to try this; as you already know, flowers by no means choose themselves. We have to take this significantly; I imply Authorities and privately owned corporations right here. I put the Authorities first as a result of a lot of the points we face are actual coverage points; many startups are solely in Enterprise as a result of their options are strolling round inefficient authorities insurance policies. The Authorities has to decide on to sort out infrastructure. We can not flourish after we nonetheless should take care of the infrastructural deficit; I dream of an Africa the place Web connectivity, the Excessive value of web Knowledge, and electrical energy aren’t on the forefront of challenges. I envision innovation hubs and free commerce zones carved out to handle expertise. I’ve a Imaginative and prescient the place Africa doesn’t depend upon fossil fuels or sources from the bottom. Nonetheless, we rely on the mental prowess of Africans and tenacity to conceive an concept and execute it to the best doable requirements.

I wrote this memo and deliberately didn’t flip it right into a gross sales pitch for Patricia. Why? As a result of I wish to give attention to growing the share dimension of the African Pie, versus who has the biggest piece of pie. Africa is jam-packed with a number of the world’s greatest issues, the biggest desert on the earth, the Sahara Desert, The longest river on the earth, the Nile River, and plenty of extra. Africa might be often known as the continent with the biggest variety of blockchain Unicorns on the earth. That is the Africa I wish to assist create and be part of.

The longer term is altering, and so are we. It won’t occur in a single day, however Blockchain will unlock new alternatives for African communities in Africa and globally over time.
I’ve a imaginative and prescient for Africa, the place we create the merchandise and never purchase the merchandise.

PREDICTIONS

I feel we’re in the course of the fifth revolution; when the fourth revolution was underway, it confronted comparable criticism Blockchain, and crypto presently faces at this time. Firms like Paypal and Amazon have been seen as facades, however they dominated the world a few years later. Right now nearly every thing has modified besides cash.

As Elon musk and Jeff Bezos race to beat outer area, it turns into extra evident to me the place we’re going. I consider sooner or later, people will develop into a multi-planetary species. When that point comes, what would we spend on Mars, South African Rands, {Dollars}, Chinese language Yuan, Euro, or Naira? I don’t suppose so; I consider we’d go digital. We’d spend crypto. These are just a few predictions I foresee occurring inside Africa and the whole Blockchain area throughout the subsequent years and many years.

Ethereum to develop into a Market chief: Judging by Ethereum shifting to the Proof of Stake Consensus Mechanism, the Ethereum community has addressed plenty of the bias’s on Inexperienced power, additionally primarily based on the utility that Ethereum supplies, I predict Ethereum to develop into a market chief and surpass Bitcoin. There’s an extra of over 50 million lively Ethereum customers at this time, and I don’t see it slowing down anytime quickly.

Crypto Regulation: I get it; Crypto is unstable, you can’t management it, it may be exploited, and so on. My granddad all the time says you shouldn’t throw the child and the bathtub water out. Crypto has been struggling for legitimacy in Africa. Nonetheless, Africa goes to have Crypto rules. Finally, Africa should look to curtail the unfold of scams whereas additionally growing rules that promote the truthful use of digital property. It’s inevitable; I additionally foresee extra conventional gamers entering into the area, verticals like Neo banks, fee processors, and switches providing crypto infrastructure.

Stablecoins: Whereas the professionals and cons of stablecoins could also be debatable, their rise will not be. To this point, Greater than $113 billion in cash have already been issued. Stablecoins present a easy answer for a fancy answer; so long as customers search stability, the rise and rise of stablecoins in Africa are nearly a given.

The Tron blockchain would proceed to scale due to a budget charges it presents its customers. There are over 113,000,000 pockets addresses, and I predict its continuous progress.

Crypto Funds: These will rise, particularly as soon as beneficial rules start to fall in place. Proper now, Companies are afraid of infringing on their respective Central Financial institution’s stance on crypto. The benefits of crypto funds outweigh the downsides; no chargebacks or PCI compliance to fret about. Accepting crypto funds offers companies, whether or not small or large, entry to a world market and attain; as well as, it might appeal to Enterprise from crypto lovers. I foresee the rise. Patricia has additionally positioned itself rightly with Patricia Enterprise to steer on this frontier.

Crypto for Content material Creators & Content material Creation: I predict an enormous shift on this area. Why? Numbers. The take charges of web2 giants are extortionate; web3 platforms supply fairer financial phrases. Suppose we examine Meta’s almost 100% take charges throughout Fb and Instagram to NFT market OpenSea’s 2.50%. The distinction is sort of clear. If we delve deeper into the Apple retailer’s 30% payment throughout the ecosystem, we are going to start to see that the online 3 area presents larger worth to content material creators. Over time they might start to note this, which might spur extra internet 3 tasks to emanate. Web3 is tiny however mighty.

FUNDING: What I discover most attention-grabbing on this ecosystem is that almost all startups kick off with out funding and, surprisingly, transfer to success. It’s such an African factor. Startups like Patricia and Jet pay by Blord group are clear examples of this. The sheer tenacity of Africans to succeed and excel does a lot of the work.

Nonetheless, to compete and develop into dominant, funding is critical. Funding is an important enabler and needed catalyst for startups to supercharge and experiencing hyper-growth.

Funding will circulate into the African area; every day worldwide traders are seeing the relevance and intrinsic worth within the continent.

I additionally predict increasingly more acquisitions of native corporations as bigger and extra established worldwide corporations would need an inroad to Africa, as was the case with Stripe and Paystack.

Gaming & Gaming Guilds: Gaming has by no means been extra attention-grabbing because it has been in current occasions. Gaming Guilds are gaming teams, or a neighborhood that connects avid gamers, traders to video games and Gamefi tasks. The place avid gamers get scholarships to play video games by renting out NFTs with the promise of splitting earnings when gamers earn. Avid gamers construct a neighborhood and keep in contact with themselves whereas taking part in video games. The extra essential factor is the reward system that the introduction of Blockchain supplies to avid gamers.

Video games tailored to the crypto area have allowed avid gamers to attach immediately with different gamers, stream video games, earn and commerce in-game gadgets much more transparently. The catch right here is to earn. Primarily based on Statista numbers, Africa has over a 650million inhabitants 17 years and youthful. Gaming guilds will current an enormous shift in wealth creation because the African inhabitants is younger and able to tackle new wealth creation schemes.

With the launch of guilds like African Gaming Guild. Key gamers are already seeing this chance and

Decentralized Finance: Decentralized Exchanges are nonetheless very novel to the African neighborhood, as only some individuals would even know of Metamask or Uniswap. Nonetheless, I consider this has essentially the most use case and poses the actual alternative to get unfastened of the present choke held by conventional finance.

A fast intro to Decentralized exchanges (abbreviated DEXs), Decentralized exchanges are various fee methods that don’t depend on banks, or brokers, to call just a few, however use good contracts on the Blockchain. DEXs aren’t large now, however once they do take off, there might be no stopping them.

Playing: Blockchain in playing is one other business shaker and potential recreation changer. Crypto Casinos, Conventional Betting corporations, adopting crypto as a method of on-ramping & off-ramping, anonymity, Dapps, and playing have existed because the starting of human historical past. Nonetheless, the wave about to return could be in contrast to the rest.

With Blockchain expertise, conventional Betting corporations would be capable of payout wins and settle for fee from anyone on the earth with a crypto pockets. New ideas like no-risk betting would emanate; using Defi expertise, individuals can place bets with out the concern of dropping a dime however nonetheless with the upside of a big pot win. The African business has been gradual to simply accept this primarily due to the regulatory bottlenecks, however this space is up-and-coming, and I see it flourishing.

Metaverse: Digital lands, NFTs, and Meta, previously Fb, are the standard suspects when the Metaverse involves thoughts. Africa continues to be very, very a lot behind in creating and constructing this immersive, common digital world. The Metaverse could be huge for manufacturers and Entrepreneurs, African and worldwide manufacturers; concurrently, the potential of reaching over 10 million individuals at a go is sort of juicy. I envision Metaverse live shows and digital conferences shifting to the Metaverse (be careful, Zoom). I think Africa would path behind on this for some time due to the talent set, technical know-how, and capital wanted to construct a thriving digital actuality world. Can Africa enter the Metaverse? Meta predicts that $40billion might be added to Africa’s economic system through the Metaverse. If that is true, then greatest consider Africans could be hopping on this practice. I like to consider the Metaverse as a steady evolution and journey. Thus, the continent and its individuals would determine how we are going to take part on this evolution. Merely put, the Metaverse will give us a brand new manner of being.

Crypto in actual property: Fractionalized/tokenized possession. Some of the thrilling developments in actual property is the concept properties might be offered and managed in a blockchain-based market. Already it’s a idea I hear whispers of right here and there within the land. This idea may help create extra liquidity in property and scale back limitations of entry and possession by creating digital tokens that characterize fractional possession of actual property property. We’ve seen marketplaces like Canadian-based Liquid collectables by Logan Paul launched internationally, which is constructed round this idea.

Cryptocurrency and Blockchain would develop into extra seen gamers in the actual property sector. It isn’t solely the expertise that makes this idea so distinctive however the idea of giving the common low/middle-class earner entry to an funding they might ordinarily not have ever discovered an entry level into. Blockchain in actual property can revolutionize the business via superior quick, intuitive, and safe transactions. With good contracts, shoppers can purchase or promote actual property rapidly and simply via Blockchain.

Crypto inclusions in conventional buying and selling asset lessons: There has already been a breakthrough on this entrance, with the primary Bitcoin ETF making its debut on the New York Inventory Change. The event represents a brand new and extra standard option to spend money on crypto. The Bitcoin ETF permits traders to purchase in on cryptocurrency immediately from conventional funding brokerages they could have already got accounts; that is however the starting.

As soon as this idea will get launched into the African area, I see massive conglomerates like GTbank co and funding homes emulating this.

Crypto Pricing & Bull run: My last prediction is that this, we’d see Bitcoin crossing over the $500,000 threshold on this lifetime. Bitcoin is an efficient indicator of the crypto market as a result of it’s the largest cryptocurrency by market cap and the remainder of the market tends to observe its traits. Hene different cryptocurrencies would observe.

Key Takeaways

  • Crypto, Blockchain, and web3 are nonetheless of their infancy in Africa.
  • Web3 offers individuals property rights: the power to personal a bit of the web. The Fifth revolution, as I prefer to name it. Learn, Write and Personal.
  • Blockchain is rising sooner than the web did. Because the official launch of Bitcoin in January 2009, the expansion of this expertise has been exponential, rising at a a lot sooner price than the web did again within the early 80s.
  • There’s a large market alternative on the intersection of web3 and gaming.
  • Bitcoin is an efficient indicator of the crypto market as a result of it’s the largest cryptocurrency by market cap and the remainder of the market tends to observe its traits.
  • A gaming guild (play-to-earn) permits avid gamers to start out taking part in crypto video games with out investments. Avid gamers, or managers, give scholarships to new members, basically renting out their NFTs for avid gamers to make use of within the recreation.
  • Peer to Peer buying and selling is King in Africa.
  • Crypto is traceable.
  • Africa has a younger inhabitants and is able to lead Blockchain adoption.

Conclusion

Africa has the potential to develop into a number one participant within the Blockchain by investing in her expertise, schooling, main crypto and blockchain adoptions, and making tight rules which have the impact of encouraging individuals to get into the area.

Whereas nobody can predict the way forward for cryptocurrencies, I do know that the novelty requires an equally nontraditional regulatory method — one as invested within the virtues of experimentation and entrepreneurship because the practices it aspires to supervise.

There’s a likelihood to place Africa because the bedrock of crypto on the earth, and that is the long run I’m banking on.

Keep doing essentially the most my greatest as all the time.

Fejiro Hanu Agbodje.

 




Source link